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The command of the priest or king and his seal could go far beyond his sight and voice and could survive his death".
The major writing systems—methods of inscription—broadly fall into four categories: logographic, syllabic, alphabetic, and featural.
Many logograms have an ideographic component (Chinese "radicals", hieroglyphic "determiners").
For example, in Mayan, the glyph for "fin", pronounced "ka'", was also used to represent the syllable "ka" whenever the pronunciation of a logogram needed to be indicated, or when there was no logogram.
In most of the writing systems of the Middle East, it is usually only the consonants of a word that are written, although vowels may be indicated by the addition of various diacritical marks.
Writing systems based primarily on marking the consonant phonemes alone date back to the hieroglyphics of ancient Egypt.
Around the 4th millennium BCE, the complexity of trade and administration in Mesopotamia outgrew human memory, and writing became a more dependable method of recording and presenting transactions in a permanent form. It made the growth of states larger than the old city states possible.
It made a continuous historical consciousness possible.
Motivations for writing include publication, storytelling, correspondence and diary.The main logographic system in use today is Chinese characters, used with some modification for the various languages or dialects of China, Japan, and sometimes in Korean despite the fact that in South and North Korea, the phonetic Hangul system is mainly used.